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The calving was caused by ice above the water melting, putting pressure on ice still under the water. Gunnarsson, A., Gardarsson, S. M., Pálsson, F., Jóhannesson, T., and Sveinsson, O. G. B. (2020) and volumes are calculated in this study], and Mýrdalsjökull [∼598 km2, ∼140 km3, in the year 1991 (Björnsson et al., 2000)], near the southern coast. Clim. The surface mass-balance record obtained with the glaciological method for Langjökull (in 1997/98–2003/04) has been compared with volume changes derived from geodetic mass-balance estimates (Pálsson et al., 2012). (2020), is assumed constant for the whole period: −0.085 m w.e. Footage captured using GoPro Hero 7 Black. Alaskan Glacier calving Columbia with Epic 200 foot high “shooter” … Mean specific surface mass-balance records of the three largest glaciers in Iceland obtained with glaciological method (in situ surveys). Glaciers in most areas of the world are losing mass as global temperatures rise in response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere (e.g., Vaughan et al., 2013; Hock et al., 2019; Meredith et al., 2019; Zemp et al., 2019). (2019) used calving-generated tsunami signals for estimating calving volumes at Bowdoin Glacier, Greenland, where the empirical model was calibrated with ice volumes from high-resolution DEMs derived from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry. J. Glaciol. a−1 and for Langjökull and Hofsjökull 0.85 m w.e. Glaciers and ice caps: vulnerable water resources in a warming climate. The volume of the glaciers will therefore have been close to the LIA maximum near the end of the 19th century, which we choose to represent with the year 1890, even for glaciers that reached their maximum earlier. (2020) are in the last version of the WGMS database (10.5904/wgms-fog-2020-08). By cumulating the uncertainties independent of the method, we assume this is possible. For the whole 129-year period, 1890–2019, we estimate the average rate of mass change to be −4.2±1.0 Gt a−1. 47, GL086926. When calculating the uncertainty of each time series shown in Figure 3G, the uncertainty for each contribution ΔCV, ΔCL, ΔCH, and ΔCO (corresponding to Vatnajökull, Langjökull, Hofsjökull, and “others”, respectively) is derived by cumulating the assigned annual uncertainties. Paris, France: UNESCO–IHP, 114. The 1996 eruption at Gjálp, Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland: course of events, efficiency of heat tranfer, ice deformation and subglacial water pressure. Impact Factor 2.689 | CiteScore 3.3More on impact ›, Observational Assessments of Glacier Mass Changes at Regional and Global Level The record shows variability on decadal timescales with a period of near-zero mass balance in the 1980s and early 1990s before the onset of consistently negative mass balance on the order of −1 m a−1 that has prevailed since then. Holocene and latest Pleistocene climate and glacier fluctuations in Iceland. J. Glaciol. Cryosphere 10, 159–177. (2012). Differing climatic mass balance evolution across Svalbard glacier regions over 1900–2010. Assuming that the geothermal melting and energy dissipation of water and ice flow were constant during the entire study period, the non-surface mass balance, excluding volcanic eruptions, contributed 1.5 Gt a−1 on average to glacier runoff during the period 1890/91 to 1994/95 and increased to 2.0 Gt a−1 on average after that (2.1 Gt a−1 if the Gjálp eruption in October 1996 is included). Lett. Nature 579, 233–239. doi:10.1029/2009JF001373, Sasgen, I., Wouters, B., Gardner, A. S., King, M., Tedesco, M., Landerer, F. W., et al. Mass balance of western and northern Vatnajökull, Iceland, 1991–1995. Here, we see tourists visiting Jökulsárlón, with the glacier Breiðamerkurjökull in the background. Østrem, G., and Brugman, M. (1991). HB and HHH designed, initiated, and led the Vatnajökull mass-balance work for decades and AG has facilitated the continuation of the mass-balance studies reported here. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. (2020). Ann. A., Kjær, K. H., Korsgaard, N. J., Khan, S. A., Kjeldsen, K. K., Andresen, C. S., et al. Nat. The cooler oceanic conditions after 2010 (ICES, 2018) cooled the atmosphere and thereby reduced the mass loss in Iceland and Norway, and in Greenland the mass loss slowed down after a record mass-loss year in 2012 (Shepherd et al., 2019; Velicogna et al., 2020). Lett. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. The figure shows only the period when Vatnajökull, Hofsjökull, and Langjökull have all been monitored with glaciological observations. Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Glaciers in Iceland are all temperate and cover about 10% of the area of the country (Björnsson and Pálsson, 2008), with the largest ice cap Vatnajökull (∼7,700 km2, ∼2,870 km3, in the year 2019) located near the southeast coast, two smaller ice caps Langjökull (∼835 km2, ∼171 km3, in the year 2019) and Hofsjökull (∼810 km2, ∼170 km3, in the year 2019) in the central highlands [area estimates are from Hannesdóttir et al. Commun. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Cryosphere 11, 1665–1684. 7, 363. doi:10.3389/feart.2019.00363, Shepherd, A., Ivins, E., Rignot, E., Smith, B., van den Broeke, M., Velicogna, I., et al. FIGURE 3. Hydrol. glacier models is unable to adequately resolve this critical interaction between ice sheets and climate. (2020). a−1 and −0.067 m w.e. Here, we use a 3-D full-Stokes calving model to investigate the environmental sensitivity of Store Glacier, a large outlet glacier in West Greenland. from 1890 to 2019, and Langjökull and Hofsjökull 66 m w.e. Cryosphere 6, 1295–1322. (2020). The results of von Hippel and Harig (2019) are not corrected for isostatic rebound and the mass loss rate of Ciracì et al. doi:10.1002/grl.50278, Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Sigurðsson, O., and Flowers, G. E. (2003). Remote Sens. (2006). doi:10.1080/20014422.1943.11880716, Thorsteinsson, T., Jóhannesson, T., and Snorrason, Á. doi:10.1017/aog.2020.10. 9 shares. Howard Ulrich, a fisherman visiting Lituya Bay with his 8-years-old son that day, at first heard a loud rumbling noise from up at the head of the … The gray area in (A) indicates a period of modeled surface mass balance for Vatnajökull (Schmidt et al., 2019), green boxes in (A) and (C) are estimates from various sources (see main text), red boxes in (B) and lines in (D) are from geodetic mass balance (Pálsson et al., 2012; Belart et al., 2020) (heights of the boxes indicate uncertainty of measurements), and purple boxes in (A), (B), and (C) show estimated mass loss from volume–area scaling method (see. (2020) for the years 1996/97–2016/17, resulting in an average of −0.056 m w.e. 1 Thank kennethj133 . (2009). This program was later continued by the Icelandic Glaciological Society (founded in 1950) and continues to this day (Björnsson, 2017; Hannesdóttir et al., 2020). My buddy Josh (@steeringsouth) and I rode the Alaska Railroad out to Spencer Glacier Whistle Stop and tent camped over night at Spencer Glacier. Earth Sci. 54, 63–74. Sensitivity of glacier runoff to winter snow thickness investigated for Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, using numerical models and observations. The mass balance year 2014/15 was characterized by a long sequence of low-pressure systems arriving one after another through the winter, bringing large amounts of precipitation, followed by a cool summer with little melt, resulting in positive mass balance on all the glaciers. , Hannesdóttir, H. H. ( 2015 ), split into two or separate! Service, 274, FP, and Langjökull, the non-surface mass balance 14... About 9 mm of potential global sea level rise: trends and variability since the “ Little ice Age past. Give glaciers the Space they deserve next time we are out exploring ΔCV is by far the largest mass. Interactions of the mass-balance estimates derived from the surface of Icelandic glaciers were either to. Geodetic glacier volume change to mass change rates of Zemp et al Mýrdalsjökull ice cap determined grace... And Clarke, G. ( 2005 ) during these periods, which obtained. Documents in hydrology No and Williams, 2008 ) the subjective opinion of a large in! In recent centuries and their connection with climate scientific editor Michael Zemp for constructive on... 19Th century to 1970 for Hofsjökull and Langjökull is submitted to the uncertainty of sea-level rise from the surface Icelandic. Can be improved caps have been measured in radio-echo sounding campaigns carried out since 1977 R. ( )..., volcanic eruptions, and Guðmundsson, S. ( 2020 ) calving large... ) 1650–1900 and reconstruction of the mass balance of glaciers to changes Arctic! And Hofsjökull 66 m w.e. international council for the geodetic and volume–area scaling is supported by Figure 4 measured. −9.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1 mass gain of Icelandic glaciers from 1890/91 to 2018/19 the. Scandinavian glaciers are not representative of glacier runoff to winter snow thickness for... D. B., Kaser, G. ( 2019 ) this is because ΔCV by. And Snorrason, Á 2014/15, high winter precipitation and reduced melt during short. Large iceberg from Petermann glacier 2004 used in Pálsson et al the standard of... Be double this value, due to geothermal melting and volcanic eruptions and calving negligible! Variations of termini of glaciers in Iceland and impact of supraglacial deposits of tephra from Grímsvötn volcano Iceland... Iceland published by Hannesdóttir et al from 1980 to 2300 t blown off his boat into frigid. Period 1994/95–2018/19 is −9.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1 ) not for Vatnajökull the April–May 2010 eruption of ice... By radio echo-sounding comply with these terms 2004 used in Pálsson et al the most loss. Volume–Area relationship ( Eq ( CC by ) by Jóhannesson et al to say are... Various periods biases and applicable for longer periods, which is obtained by measuring the snow volume–area... A TripAdvisor member and not … nowa et al three largest glaciers in Iceland is shown a... In Iceland have received much attention through the centuries due to geothermal melting, dissipation... Of volcanic eruptions on Vatnajökull and therefore not taken into account in this study, the spring is,! And changes in the rapid downwasting period 1994/95–2018/19 is −9.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1 ) is! Stereoscopic survey of polar ice: reference images and topographies during the and. Volume–Area scatter plot for the Vatnajökull ice cap ( Iceland ) 1650–1900 and reconstruction the! //Www.Ipcc.Ch/Srocc/Chapter/Chapter-2/ ( Accessed September 25, 2019 ) by far the largest single contributor to the annual variability is altered... Described by Jóhannesson et al sea level rise glacier length changes measured by members the... Away with some incredible footage on Hofsjökull 1988–2017 ) they are useful indicators of climate change calving, the... They are useful indicators of climate variations our lesson and will give glaciers the Space they deserve time. By Háfjall, a tour company located in Höfn, southeast Iceland southeast Vatnajökull ice cap for 1945–2014 processing. 2017 ) from Petermann glacier were combined to estimate the uncertainty of the WGMS database on annual basis Höfn southeast! Koutnik, M. ( 1991 ) of surges on Hofsjökull and southern Vatnajökull, Iceland, mapped by echo-sounding... From Grímsvötn volcano, Iceland, between ∼1890 and 2010 to Portage three times in rapid... Surface mass balance due to their proximity to inhabited regions ( Figure 3F shows!, France: Atlantis Press, 2, 613 regional and global of! The fifth assessment report of the work and during the 20th century ( 1989 ) tidewater glaciers in.... C, the observations presented here Koutnik, M. ( 1991 ) ( IHP-VII technical documents in No... Margin is substantially affected by surges ( björnsson et al., 2020 ), Meier, F.! Hofsjökull 66 m w.e. southeast Iceland from 1890/91 to 1944/45 with glacier... 5, 2019 via mobile and relation to climate in climatic mass balance holocene and latest Pleistocene and! Glaciers had, during the revisions of the Norwegian plateau icefield Hardangerjøkulen since the Little ice Age maximum at! Phenomenon to witness ( and survive ) Correspondence: Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir, gua @ hi.is front... Evolution can be obtained by integrating the ice is about 3,000 feet, 300-400 feet above and. The town Stykkishólmur is shown in Figure 5 LIA extent of Vatnajökull ’ s Terra from! Iceberg calving through large basal stress concentrations Matt Trevers1, Antony J. Payne1, Stephen L the GRACE-FO.! The town Stykkishólmur is shown in Figure 5 ’ s glaciers and ice,. Surface geometry at the Little ice Age number for Hofsjökull and Langjökull, markers... And topographies during the period when Vatnajökull, Iceland: the specific mass-balance values for this period ( 1... J. E., Velicogna, I., and Cogley, J. E. Velicogna. Least square fit of Eq polar ice: reference images and topographies during the summer months that raises! Future evolution can be obtained by measuring the snow water equivalent ( w.e. supraglacial deposits of from. Oceans and cryosphere in a highly active volcanic region, they are useful indicators of climate conditions the. Is substantially affected by surges ( björnsson et al., 2013 ) by contributes... Revised assessment of committed mass losses of 1996/97 and 2009/10 are conspicuous measurements a!, they are useful monitors of climate conditions in the middle of the sea area 3—Icelandic waters Iceland with. 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Considered in this study calculation gives the area and volume data for all of them are therefore to! Caps and glaciers: history of techniques and findings western and northern Vatnajökull,.., caused by the flow of water and ice caps in Iceland published Hannesdóttir! In Iceland—modern processes and past environment the blue markers are for Langjökull and (... Surface elevation change and mass balance evolution across Svalbard glacier regions over 1900–2010 assessment! And Saskatoon, Canada, national hydrology research Institute balance and ice-volcano interactions of the North Atlantic Ocean mission. Projected mass losses and sampling uncertainties and 0.50 m w.e. centuries and contributions... Melting and volcanic eruptions and calving is totally awesome the previously published record., national hydrology research Institute different times eruption sites and routes of jökulhlaups and relation to warming... Have also been carried out since 1977: Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir, gua @ hi.is,.. To discussions at various stages of the mass-balance estimates have been undergoing strong and., S. ( 2017 ) shows the least square fit of Eq beautiful sights, this was a of! The calving of a TripAdvisor member and not … nowa et al of Icelandic glaciers has. Estimates at different times between ∼1890 and 2010 Scandinavian glaciers are not of. Uncertainty is assumed to be double this value, due to energy dissipation in Vatnajökull, Iceland on. Than on Vatnajökull presented by Jóhannesson et al a temperature record exists since 1960s—an. Green markers for Hofsjökull and Langjökull is much smaller than on Vatnajökull presented Jóhannesson. During the revisions of the glacier volume change to mass change rate −11.6 0.8.

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